Fears that north of Wales at higher risk of second Covid-19 wave if lockdown relaxed

Llandudno. Picture by Nigel Swales. (CC BY-SA 2.0)

A Member of the Senedd has warned that the north of Wales is at a high risk of a second wave of Covid-19 if the Welsh Government relaxes the lockdown.

Of the 133 new cases announced in Wales yesterday, more than half were in the Betsi Cadwaladr Health Board region.

Llyr Gruffydd said a new statistical analysis showed that the R value in the Betsi Cadwaladr Health Board region was ‘worryingly’ higher than other parts of the country.

It needed to come down significantly before any lockdown restrictions could be lifted, he said, and that any difference with other parts of the country should not be overlooked by government.

“Messages from Cardiff and Westminster governments that Covid-19 virus illness is reducing are overlooking regional differences,” Plaid Cymru MS Llyr Gruffydd said. “That is a particular concern for north Wales.

“Last week the Welsh Government issued a ‘technical update’ to illustrate how, in Wales as a whole, the rate at which each person infected by the virus passed it on to other people had reduced substantially.

“In late March any person carrying the virus was likely to infect nearly three other people giving a rate of infection R of 2.8 to 1.”


‘Single nation’

The Welsh Government has published a Technical Advisory Cell Modelling Update in which its statisticians have estimated the rate of infection during the lockdown.  The report states:

“All contributors use a different methodology for modelling R and their results are brought together for a consensus view. The models use new hospital admissions where the patient has tested positive for COVID-19, new confirmed cases (where a patient has been tested positive for COVID-19), and deaths where the deceased has been tested positive for COVID-19”.

The data is tracked over time to show the relative change in the R measure. The Technical Advisory Cell states that R is now between 0.7 and 0.9 in Wales as a whole, meaning that for every ten people that are infected, seven or nine further people will be infected.  That would mean that, in Wales as a whole, the number of Covid-19 cases is slowly declining.

But the R rate in different parts of Wales varies as the virus arrived at different times in different regions.  However, the Technical Advisory Cell has not produced any R estimate for the north Wales the Betsi Cadwaladr Health Board area.

The First Minister told Wrexham.com that: “That isn’t to say, we know that the virus has taken a different course in some parts of Wales. It runs in a different way in urban and rural places.”

But the First Minister declined to have his Technical Advisory Cell produce a seperate estimate for the north of Wales, saying: “We act in this way as a single nation”.


Retired Management Consultant Tom Brooks, who has experience of epidemiological modelling in various parts of the world, said that his modelling suggested R had pushed back over 1 in the Betsi Cadwaladr area.

“Various sources of data are available for calculating the R number, as acknowledged by the Technical Advisory Group,” he said.

“Public Health Wales publishes a Coronavirus dashboard which includes ‘numbers of confirmed tested cases’, ‘number of cases suspected by GPs from consultations in clinics’, ‘the number of persons suspected of having the virus in triage calls with NHS 111’,etc. Other sources of survey data are available such as the KCL and Zoe Global Covid symptom study.

“The Office of National Statistics publishes details of deaths which are considered on registration to have a Covid-19 factor.  Care Inspectorate Wales publishes figures in relation to care home mortalities involving Covid-19.

“All of these are available at the Betsi Cadwaladr regional level and are sufficient to model the infection rate with a good level of confidence. The R rate had been down to under 0.9 in north Wales by early May, but the increased viral activity and cases this month have now pushed it back near to 1.

“The case activity reports from May 7 to May 10 have been most concerning. All measures have caused concern, but the positive tested case figures illustrate the outlier state of the virus in north Wales.  238 new positive tested cases were recorded in four days; this is a huge increase for North Wales.

“Current cases are higher than the 222 positive tested cases announced on the four days April 18 to 21, then at the peak of the pandemic in North Wales. 35% of confirmed cases in Wales are now in the North.   In the last two and a half weeks most parts of the UK, including south Wales has seen a steady reduction in the incidence of Covid-19 due to the application of lockdown measures.  Why not north Wales?”


Tom Brooks added that the differential in the R rate, although seemingly minor, had the potential to increase the number of deaths in the region by thousands in the coming months.

“The difference for north Wales as to whether R goes down to 0.9, stays at 1 or goes up to 1.1 is dramatic. The Technical Advisory Group have produced a table demonstrating the difference in impact that different levels of R make.

When their figures are scaled to the current level of infection in the north, he said, the table reads:

Cumulative for the Timeline May 8th to August 7th – 3 months.
Source: Welsh Government, TAC, scaled to figures for the north Wales.

“That would mean an additional 2240 deaths in north Wales alone if the R value increases to 1.1,” Tom Brooks said.

“No allowance is made in these figures for steadily improving healthcare management of confirmed cases in our hospitals and a subsequent lower mortality rate. However, if we continue as at present at R near to 1, close to 1,000 more families in north Wales will lose a loved one. Allowing R to exceed 1 should not be contemplated.

“North Wales urgently needs to launch its test, track and trace programme to drive R to lower levels and spare the population. With the high incidence of Covid-19 in north Wales, we should be the priority for Wales for track and trace.”

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John EllisHuw DaviesCeriWrexhamianSibrydionmawr Recent comment authors
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Jonathan Gammond
Jonathan Gammond

To mix metaphors, sometimes going at the pace of the slowest boat will ensure we dont all end up the proverbial creek without a paddle. If the term ‘nation’ is to mean anything, the government should relax restrictions when all the country is ready, not just the ‘average’. We need to know what is happening in north Wales. Perhaps golf fans could wait a little longer before they hit the greens at Celtic Manor, Newport?

Huw Davies
Huw Davies

People are getting anxious about the effects on the economy but we need to be cautious about relaxing rules especially in relation to socialising and leisure. Even the highly disciplined approach of Sth Korea has yielded sudden spikes when such rules were relaxed.


It’s a Catch 22 situation – either way the economy is going to take a hit, and the better option of the two is to err on the side of caution and keep lock-down as long as necessary: dead workers don’t produce anything, and whilst it’s costly to keep workers furloughed it’s probably much cheaper in the long terms as they actually remain alive and productive to help rebuild the economy when it’s safe to do so. Mind you, the way things are going with the nincompoops in Westminster, they’ll make the mistake of once again hammering the workers and… Read more »


It certainly feels like a Catch-22, any policy-level actuarial decisions are. It feels gross, but decisions need to be made. Problem is, as I’m sure many Nation readers/commenters will agree, the difficult decisions aren’t really ours. A difficult decision will be made, not by us, it may disproportionately impact us (as it usually does) and then we’re lulled back into complacency with a gif of a fluttering union flag, a crackling recording of a Churchill speech and the fact that we all enjoy fish and chips thrown about as though that means anything. Accountability for elected officials, full personal sovereignty,… Read more »

Huw Davies
Huw Davies

Agree with your drift but suspect that despite the underlying urge to spank the poor the old Tory “survival” gene ( or genie!) will prevail and they’ll do a more softly, softly recovery. Looking back to 1945 (again) the post Covid international recovery could be something similar to the European post WW11 recovery. All nations were knackered to varying degrees then as they will be now, so all this nonsense about being “overspent” was set aside and even more was spent on the rebuild. Boris and his mob were already talking big numbers for public spending at the pre Covid… Read more »

Angharad Shaw
Angharad Shaw

There certainly appears to be grounds for concern here, but the 238 new cases in 4 days 7-10 May is not such a concern as Tom Brooks makes out. Comparing that with the 222 from 18-21 April, when there were far fewer tests being carried out, is not really valid. My question though, would be: why would this be happening? Is it lockdown fatigue, leading to complacency? If so, that’s going to be very difficult to combat. Compulsory masks would be the only thing I can think of which might help in that case (actually I think we should be… Read more »


Do Public Health Wales know where in the Betsi region this recent increase has taken place, so that tracking and tracing could be pinpointed? Is it Gwynedd, Ynys Mon, Conwy and Denbighshire, or Alyn and Deeside and Wrecsam Maelor? If the former, then we can guess the cause; if the latter, where there is no tourism industry, there will be a very different explanation.

John Ellis
John Ellis

I believe, from some random news iterms that I’ve come across, that there are some discrete figures stating the number of infections in each local authority area, but I haven’t been able to trace the details of the information on line.