5 parallels between Game of Thrones and Welsh mythology

HBO

 

Ifan Morgan Jones

Since JRR Tolkien first introduced us to Middle-Earth in the 1930’s modern fantasy authors have mined Welsh mythology for inspiration.

Some of the most successful blockbusters and series of the last 20 years, including Harry Potter and Game of Thrones, are all seriously indebted to Wales’ legends.

Unfortunately, this mythology hasn’t always been appreciated by the Welsh themselves, who made a conscious decision to turn their backs on it because of the way they were portrayed in the 18th and 19th century as a magical, unserious people.

This hopefully seems to be changing. I wrote the novel Dadeni, published in May, because I wanted to remind the Welsh about our own mythology. Visit Wales has also declared 2017 a Year of Legends.

This morning saw the premier of the seventh series of Game of Thrones. So, what better time to look at a few of the ways that George R.R. Martin was inspired by Welsh mythology?

5 – Winter is Coming

Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain had a big influence on how we saw our own history until his tales were debunked in the 19th century.

It portrayed the coming of the Anglo-Saxon to Britain as punishment by God. The Britons had acted immorally and quarreled with each other, leaving themselves venerable to attack.

This, of course, has obvious parallels with the plot of Game of Thrones. As the Starks, Lannisters and Targaryen’s rip each other to shreds they’re largely oblivious to the far greater threat coming at them from the North.

There are other parallels in Game of Thrones with Britain’s history as told by Geoffrey.

The ‘First Men’ whose ancestors still populated the North in Westeros and worship the Old Gods are largely analogous to the Celts. Some continue to speak the ‘Old Tongue’.

The Andals from Essos who have taken over most the south of Westeros, bringing the ‘Common Tongue’ with them, are the Anglo-Saxons.

4 – Nature

Trees such as the oak and yew were sacred to the Celts, as they are to the First Men who still worship the Old Gods in Game of Thrones.

It’s no coincidence either than the Weirdwoos in the Godswood in Game of Thrones are white with red leaves. These are the colour of the supernatural in Welsh mythology.

When Pwyll comes across a pack of hounds at the very beginning of the Mabinogi – the Dogs of Annwn – they’re white with red ears.

The animal and tree-worshipping Children of the Forest mentioned often in Game of Thrones also have clear parallels with the Tylwyth Teg of Welsh mythology.

3 – Weird sexual relationships

Incestuous sexual relationships, rape, and people turning into animals – Game of Thrones has all three in spades.

George RR Martin has however had a hard time topping the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi.

After Gilfaethwy rapes his uncle’s servant, the powerful sorcerer turns him and his brother Gwydion into a pair of mating animals, first a stag and hind deer, then a sow and board, and finally a wolf and she wolf.

The two brothers mate as all three animals and have three sons, Hyddwn, Hychddwn and Bleiddwn (Stag-man, Tall-piglet, and Wolf-man).

In Game of Thrones, Joffrey is born of an incestuous relationship between his mother and uncle. Several characters also have the ability to take over the bodies of nearby animals.

2 – Lyanne Stark

There are continuous references throughout the Game of Thrones books and TV series to a war that happened in the past that installed Robert Baratheon as king.

The spark that set the war off was Rhaegar Targaryen’s (Daenarys’ brother) kidnapping of Eddard Stark’s sister and Robert’s significant other, Lyanne.

Robert and Ned go after her, and this causes a civil war than brings down the Targaryen’s.

Some have pointed to Helen of Troy as the obvious inspiration – the face that launched a thousand ships.

But there’s a very strong similarity to the story of Branwen ferch Llŷr in the Second Branch of the Mabinogi.

Her mistreatment by the Irish King Matholwch sets off a war with Britain. Her brothers, King of the Britons Bendigeidfran and Efinisen, set off to save her.

At first they seem to settle their differences, and sit down for a feast. But it soon becomes a battle so violent it makes the Red Wedding look like a teddy bears’ picnic.

As with Game of Thrones, there’s a very high body count. All the main characters are dead by the end of this war between Britain and Ireland, including Matholwch, Bendigeidfran, Efnisien, and Branwen.

1 – Bran

The character of Bran Stark is the most obvious example of George RR Martin drawing inspiration from Welsh legend.

There are obvious parallels with the mythological figure of Bran, or Bendigeidfran as he’s known in the Mabinogi.

Bran in Game of Thrones develops psychic powers after being thrown out of the upper window of a castle and losing the use of is legs.

Bendigeidfran’s weak spot is also his legs and his own powers only grow stronger after he’s ‘killed’ with a spear to the foot.

Like Bran is carried around Westeros by Hodor, the Bran of Welsh mythology is carried around Britain before being buried on the White Hill (now the site of the Tower of London).

There are other characters that seem to have been inspired by Welsh Mythology.

Ramsey Bolton (played by Welshman Iwan Rheon) has a penchant for dismemberment that is very similar to Bendigeidfran’s villainous half-brother Efnisien.

The psychotic Efnisien likes nothing more than cutting ears and lips, crushing people’s heads with his bare hands, and burning small children alive.

***

As you can see, Welsh mythology has all the ingredients that have made Game of Thrones a success – war, political intrigue, violence, and sex. All we need now is for someone to commisson the series!

Articles via Email

Get instant updates to your inbox

5 Comments

  1. I’ve found it to be more than a coincidence, perhaps, that Bran and other sorcerers / soothsayers in the series are known as ‘greenseers’, and their visions as ‘green dreams’. Any connection to the ‘Green Man’ of Celtic mythology as a whole, perhaps?

    Also, George R.R. Martin has publicly stated that the kingdom of Dorne is partly inspired by Welsh history. A kingdom which has a strong history of independence, which resisted being conquered by the Targaryens even after all the other kingdoms had fallen, and whose rulers style themselves as ‘Princes’.

  2. Now wouldn’t that be something on telly – the Mab with all the blood and sex intact!

  3. Gwnewch un am dan ‘the legend of zelda’ 🙂 | Make one about ‘the legend of zelda’ 🙂

  4. Some good stuff but the rebellion was actually started after the Mad King killed Ned Stark’s father and brother (as well as a number of others).
    Crucially this did all come about after LyannA’s ‘kidnapping’, if only she had sent a raven, so many lives could have been spared.

    If people are interested in the lore but don’t want to read several thousand pages of text then I recommend looking on youtube for “Game of Thrones History and Lore”.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPI_xA1SoRg

    Anyway, Bran is Welsh for raven, another nod to the story.

    There’s also Brad y Cyllyll Hirion (Treachery of the Long Knives) which is similar to an infamous GoT scene although this has happened more than once in history. the Scots have the Massacre of Glencoe, for example.

    “The psychotic Efnisien likes nothing more than cutting ears and lips, crushing people’s heads with his bare hands, and burning small children alive.”
    I give you Ser Gregor Clegane aka The Mountain (played in season two by Bangor’s Iain Whyte).

    Also, some of the sigils are very reminiscent of Welsh designs. A rampant golden lion on a red background is the sigil of House Lannister, similar to the Deheubarth flag that would later be incorporated in Glyndwr’s flag along with the red lion. The red lion was the sigil of House Reyne (referred to in the Rains of Castamere).

    I did do a list of Welsh actors in GoT. Don’t think I ever posted it, if you’re interested in it let me know.

  5. Apocalyptic queen

    There are very strong parallels with ancient Welsh (and indeed, ancient British) history and Game of Thrones. Like another has said, Welsh and British history has clearly been referenced to some degree or another, as stated by Martin himself, who has said that Dorne is based on Welsh and Spanish history. Like the Spanish, they hold enlightened views of women (think Isabella and Joanna of Castille), and like Wales used to, they recognise the hereditary status of ba$$$$$$. Wales also did not explicitly rule women from the line of succession. After the death of Llywelyn the Last, his sole surviving child, Gwenllian, was hidden from the Welsh to prevent her becoming the figurehead of Welsh independence.

    GRR Martin also states that the wall is based on Hadrian’s Wall, perhaps implying that the Picts are analgous to the Wildlings. As with the area beyond the wall, Scotland was not claimed by the Romans due to a perception that it was too wild and the people, too fearsome.

    As with the First Men, the Children of the Forest may be analgous to the Welsh – or the first Britons, prior to Romanisation. They are described as small, swarthy, fierce, war-like and incredibly superstitious. This description is actually very similar to that made by Tacitus to describe some of the first Britons he saw, the Silures, during the Roman occupation. The First Men – whom the children eventually reached an uneasy accord with – may be more analgous to the Romans, or more specifically, Romano-British culture, with its mix of ancient British traditions, Christianity and Roman trading and legal norms.

    There is also the name of Bran – which like his Westerosi named part, is associated with the Welsh word for raven.

    It is significant that so many of the Targeryans have Welsh sounding names – Aerys, Viserys, Rhaenys, Daenerys.

    Daenerys’ name in particular may be very significant in terms of her future plot arc going forward. A google search will reveal that the Welsh name, “Nerys” is associated with Lord, Chief and courage – just as with Daenerys.

    I believe the strongest parallel with Daenerys however comes not from a character from the Mabinogi, but with a claimant to the English throne of Welsh origins – Henry Tudor, the future Henry VII.

    Like Henry, Daenerys is the last living member of her house, has spent the majority of her life in poverty and exile, and now finds herself accumulating support from the Westerosi houses who wish to extricate themselves from a senseless tyrant in the form of Cersei Lannister.

    Like Henry Tudor, she bears the sigil of a red dragon in honour of her house and heritage and if her historical counterpart is anything to go by, she may end up going into battle on the Trident with her opponent, just like Henry VII did against Richard III. And like her counterpart, she may end up marrying someone with a potentially stronger claim to the throne than she but tainted with the accusation of illegitimacy (Jon Snow).

Leave a Reply