Opinion

Why new restrictions may be needed in Wales as Covid cases rise sharply

25 Aug 2021 8 minutes Read
Covid cases are on the rise in Wales again

Angharad Shaw

It looks as if Covid is back again with a vengeance. Throughout the past three weeks, almost unnoticed by many, including much of the media it seems, cases have been rising sharply. So, what’s going on, and what can be done about it?

Cases are now averaging over 1,500 a day. This compares with just under 650 just three weeks ago, and less than 50 in late May. We are in the middle of the so-called “delta wave”: the B.1.617.2 variant, and currently the world’s most prolific strain.

The reason Delta has been so successful in Cymru, and across the planet, is because of its R0 (reproduction) value. R0 is an indication of how many people will be infected, on average, if one single infected person is put in a population that is wholly susceptible (i.e. no pre-existing immunity). Broadly speaking, the higher R0 is, for a given strain, the more successful it will be, displacing other variants on its march through the population.

Covid-19 cases (Wales) since 1 May

There is also a formula for working out the level of immunity required in a population to achieve ‘herd immunity’ levels – beyond which the virus will naturally fade away.

R0 for the original strain was estimated at around 3. For Alpha (the “Kent” variant”) it was around 4. For Delta, it has been estimated at 7. At that value, we require an immunity of around 85%.

That is just about achievable, but very difficult. And, sadly, given the number of people who won’t, or simply can’t be bothered to get vaccinated, the only way we will reach that figure is via a certain amount of infection. It’s unfortunate that we can’t just infect the anti-vaxxers – if only Covid would play game!

But our vaccination programme is not yet complete. There are still people who are willing, or who can yet be persuaded, to be vaccinated. I include those aged 12+ in this, who we know are significant drivers in the pandemic. And until we are at that stage, we are unnecessarily infecting people.

There’s another complication here: vaccines are not perfect. They also appear to become less effective over time, though studies on this are only just coming to light and are still debated. But it does mean that even vaccinated people are able to catch the virus. The chances are they will get a milder form; they are far less likely to die.

But evidence seems to suggest that the chances of Long Covid developing from such “break-through” infections are not significantly reduced. Boosters are going to be needed, and probably quite soon for those who were vaccinated first.

Lag

The situation at the moment is that cases are continuing to rise fast, and no end to this rise is in sight. R (the measure of how many people one single person infects, on average, currently) is around 1.3. R does appear now, in the last few days, to have started to fall. But it has a fair way to go until it reaches 1 – at which point cases start to fall.

And this is happening at a time when the bank holiday weekend is just around the corner, and schools are preparing to return. This could be a recipe for disaster.

R estimate in Wales since 1 May

Today, the First Minister has said that “the rising cases are not translating into huge numbers going to the health service”, and that is used as justification for not doing anything just yet. But that’s a very poor justification. Hospital admissions and deaths always lag cases. We know well what cases are doing; no-one seriously argues otherwise.

Given that the nature of Covid has not changed, we also know, as sure as night follows day, that deaths will rise over the next few weeks, as will hospital admissions. We can even do rough calculations to estimate what will happen:

We know from observation that deaths lag cases by around two weeks. There have been 17 deaths in the past week. If we take the 7-day average cases today, divide it by the average two weeks ago, and multiply the result by the present number of deaths, we get:

(1550/695) * 17 = 38.

Don’t hold me to that. But it will be in the right ballpark. And that won’t be the peak, because right now, cases are still rising.

And it’s true that we are seeing far fewer deaths now than we were from roughly the same number of cases back in January – roughly a tenth. The moral question then is: how many deaths are acceptable, and how many cases of Long Covid are acceptable?

And to that last point: we still do not understand all the long term consequences of Long Covid. So the question is, how much do we risk on something we don’t understand? It is my personal observation that people who have experienced Long Covid tend to be far more keen on maintaining restrictions than others. And that is no surprise.

Mark Drakeford the First Minister of Wales. Picture by the Welsh Government

Schools

So where are we now? Delta took over as the main variant in Cymru sometime in May, and made steady progress. Cases rose until the end of the school term. Then, within a few days (as I am on record as predicting), cases started to fall. There is no question that schools are a major contributor to the pandemic.

But then something unexpected happened: cases started to rise again. It seems what happened is that people went away on holiday, dropping their guard (after all, Boris had said it’s all over – and I am afraid some of that mentality had reached Cymru too) and brought the virus back with them.

This also explains why we see cases distributed so relatively evenly across Cymru, rather than observing epicentres with a spread out from them, as we had seen in the past. This is something we can see most clearly on the maps produced by Dr Lowri Williams, of Cardiff University.

What happens when schools return? There is likely to be an increase in the rate of rise (R will go up). Indeed, it would be quite surprising if that did not happen. But the peak holiday season will also be over. So what happens a week or so after the start of term, when holiday acquired cases have all come to light, is a guess. R will probably lower again. Cases could even start to fall again, as people travel less. Or the schools could continue to drive cases onwards. We just don’t know, because we don’t have past data to go on; last year at this time, cases were very low.

Wales positivity (by sample date) since 1st May

Measures

There is always a price to pay for restrictions, and we can’t ignore that. Be that mental, financial, physical health, or whatever. And these need to be factored into any decision that politicians make. Unfortunately, politicians are also susceptible to political pressure. In a system that is still very adversarial in nature (despite the Senedd having a better setup than Westminster), an irresponsible opposition party can snipe at moves by the government, knowing they will never have to do anything about it themselves.

Such sniping appeals to some voters, and they know it. Such sniping also, indirectly, causes deaths and suffering. Politicians using Covid for political gain in this way should be utterly ashamed of themselves.

What measures could the First Minister introduce? Here are some of my thoughts:

  • School children, when they return, must wear masks. This one, to me, given the situation, is a no-brainer;
  • Indoor gatherings should be limited. Covid transmits through the air, primarily. Indoors is where most transmission happens. Super-spreader events appear to be a large part of the problem;
  • I’m very sorry, young people, but nightclubs are a huge issue here, and we know that young people have been one of, if not the main driver of the rise during the summer. Perhaps local authorities could be encouraged to license more outdoor events for young people (just an idea).

There’s a big problem here for hospitality. We can’t escape the fact that it contributes significantly. Outdoor spaces – fine. Indoors – not. And I don’t have a simple answer to this.

It goes without saying, I think, that mask-wearing in all public indoor scenarios should be maintained.

And finally, when you have to be indoors, ventilation is key. The message is getting out there, but it’s still not understood by enough people. Leave the doors open, open the windows, ensure air is refreshed constantly.

If, when schools return, you collect your child from school and find windows and doors closed, during the mild weather we hopefully will still be experiencing when they return, ask why. The first couple of weeks of school are going to be crucial.

Dr Angharad Shaw is a lecturer in Computer Science, at Aberystwyth University; her PhD and post-doctoral research was in the field of bioinformatics.

Subscribe
Notify of
guest
15 Comments
Oldest
Newest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Dai Rob
Dai Rob
1 month ago

Excellent piece Annie…..it’s all doom & gloom! I really don’t know what the answers are and what the end game is, in all this!! 🙁

Leigh Richards
Leigh Richards
1 month ago
Reply to  Dai Rob

The ‘end game: in all this – indeed the only way out of the nightmare cycle of recurring lockdowns – is mandatory vaccination.

Dai Rob
Dai Rob
1 month ago
Reply to  Leigh Richards

Even then, I don’t know if that would solve it…..borth my wifes parent were double jabbed & both caught covid. Both recovered thankfully, thanks to the jabs!

Angela
Angela
1 month ago

Great article! I’ve been thinking exactly the same things myself. So, I’m not surprised by your article, just that it’s being voiced!

Shan Morgain
1 month ago

Slightly muddled article, entirely forgivable as all medical people are so exhausted. She says “There is no question that schools are a major contributor to the pandemic.” …Then she says ” But the peak holiday season will also be over. So what happens a week or so after the start of term, when holiday acquired cases have all come to light, is a guess. R will probably lower again. Cases could even start to fall again, as people travel less. Or the schools could continue to drive cases onwards. We just don’t know,” …………… But we DO know. It has tended… Read more »

Adrienne
Adrienne
1 month ago
Reply to  Shan Morgain

I didn’t find it muddled. The article reflects the uncertainty about what could happen.

Jack
Jack
1 month ago

I think political pressure will be more intense this time around. The furlough scheme ending will mean restrictions on businesses will be very hard to enforce, and impossible to enforce for very long.

I also think restrictions on indoor gatherings will be difficult to enforce in the winter, with noncompliance being a bigger problem than before. Practically speaking, meeting outside won’t be an option so people will probably just meet inside anyway.

Restrictions may be necessary but I’m not convinced the will is there anymore.

Leigh Richards
Leigh Richards
1 month ago

Covid 19 will continue to be with us – and im afraid kill large numbers of people – for as long as significant numbers of people remain unvaccinated. The only way out of the nightmare cycle of recurring lockdowns is mandatory vaccination. Learn from the lessons of history – we were only able to eradicate smallpox because the vaccine was made compulsory

Llyn expat
Llyn expat
1 month ago

We in Wales have only just had our freedom of association restored — until earlier this month it was unlawful to have a friend around, indoors, for a cup of tea.

For how long does Dr Shaw expect us to put up with such restrictions? Anyone proposing restrictions really should set out an exit plan.

Shan Morgain
1 month ago
Reply to  Llyn expat

It will go on as long as it is necessary. It’s frustrating yes, but better than people long term sick, and dying. Which could be you. As for an exit plan the virus keeps changing so the plan must too.

Owain Morgan
Owain Morgan
1 month ago
Reply to  Llyn expat

Exit plan – Covid numbers are down and remain low. Slow and managed exit from restrictions. No dates provided. Simple! Precisely what the Welsh Government did, but wasn’t good enough for selfish, ignorant people !

Last edited 1 month ago by Owain Morgan
Llyn expat
Llyn expat
1 month ago
Reply to  Owain Morgan

I do not consider myself selfish or ignorant to want to be able to invite friends around, or to be able to travel where I like within the UK, now that I have been fully vaccinated AND that all other adults have had the chance to be vaccinated. I would be amazed if anyone else did. But what if numbers do not go down and remain low? Must we have restrictions into 2022 and 2023, potentially? That might merely be “frustrating” for some, but for many people – especially the younger people that Dr Shaw seems to think are concerned… Read more »

Last edited 1 month ago by Llyn expat
Adrienne
Adrienne
1 month ago
Reply to  Llyn expat

You’re just being selfish and very stupid.

Adrienne
Adrienne
1 month ago
Reply to  Llyn expat

Don’t be so childish. You really do sound like a child not being allowed to have sweeties.. This is about preventing deaths. Maybe that is of no concern to you, but some of us value our lives and we don’t want other people to die. Obviously you think your ‘freedom’ to enjoy yourself is more important.

Pete Roberts
Pete Roberts
1 month ago

Excellent piece, There is another driver in this and that is the removal of the need to self isolate when double jabbed if a contact of a case without any need to regularly self test with LFT. Since we now know of vaccine waning, breakthrough infection and comparable viral loads between vax and unvaxed patients this needs serious consideration. You only need to look at the sample date graphs to see that the rise stated after the change in regulations to allow this. We need some urgent research to see how many of the cases are cases of contacts and… Read more »

Our Supporters

All information provided to Nation.Cymru will be handled sensitively and within the boundaries of the Data Protection Act 2018.